All normal people depend on something – air, water, food, love … But if dependence becomes an obsession, makes a slave out of a person, it becomes a disaster. This brings suffering to the addict himself and his loved ones. Today, addictions are so common that every person is familiar with this problem firsthand. Millions of people all over the world suffer from addictions, even more from the fact that addicts are next to them.
The word “addiction” means dependence, the inability to achieve satisfaction in healthy ways.
The main types of dependencies:
- Addiction to chemicals.
- Drug addiction.
- Drug addiction.
- Dependence on stimulating substances contained in tea and coffee.
- Food addiction.
- Overeating. Psychological mechanism.
- Refusal of food, depression as a result of “skinny” diet.
- Addiction to relationships.
- Codependency. Addiction to a relationship with a chemically dependent person.
- Physiological dependence. The mechanism of addiction: sex as a psychostimulant and relaxant.
- Romantic addiction. It is formed not so much from the physiological as from the psychological plan of love relationships. One of the forms is an obsessive desire through your partner to feel your significance, “need”, etc. Forms of manifestation in the process of recovery from chemical addiction.
- Platonic dependence. Adoration “from afar”. Music fans, admirers of “beautiful ladies”, sectarians. TV addiction.
- Gambling addiction, Internet addiction. The mechanism of addiction: excitement (psychostimulation) – exhaustion. Gambling. Computer games, internet.
- Adrenaline addiction. Addiction mechanism: arousal with risky behavior.
- Workaholism. Altered state of consciousness caused by physical and mental exhaustion. Socially approved addiction.
- Obsessive stinginess. Obsessive waste of money.
- Other possible forms of addiction: sport, lust for power, aggression.
The mechanism of formation of addictive behavior is always the same – that which at first served to satisfy any need, itself turns into a need, and this newly formed need subordinates human behavior.
Reasons for addictions
Psychologists associate the emergence of addiction with the discrepancy between the requirements for an individual to be in time and lead in all sectors and his inability to join this frantic rhythm of modern life. A person who does not know how to relieve stress by volitional efforts, autogenous training, yoga, resorts to more understandable and easy ways. Some start drinking, others sit down at the computer to shoot zombies, women are more likely to seize their problems or spend money.
The psychological characteristics of the personality influencing the manifestation of dependent behavior were identified. These characteristics include the following:
- Inadequate self-esteem – often underestimated.
- Egocentrism is fixation on oneself, on one’s desires.
- Inability to plan for the future and manage time wisely.
- High suggestibility – a momentary response to an invitation, advertising, imitation of the majority.
- Denial of their feelings – because of previous psychological trauma, they drive away emotions from themselves, do not analyze them, do not work them out.
- Maximalism – go to extremes: either everything is fine or very bad.
- High anxiety – people are worried about any reason, worried about the future.
- Low stress tolerance – inability to cope with stress.
It should be remembered that heredity plays an important role in the occurrence of chemical and biochemical dependencies, therefore it is desirable for people to know well the history of their kind.
Methods of treatment and overcoming addictions
All types of chemical and biochemical addiction must be treated permanently. Patients should be under the constant supervision of medical personnel, observe the regimen, take the necessary medications.
Alcoholics and drug addicts are primarily purified from the blood of harmful substances. Patients with anorexia are injected intravenously with nutrients, and then they are taught to eat on their own, since their bodies often have already lost the habit of eating. With bulimia, follow the diet, do not allow additional food. All of these clients are supported by psychiatrists and psychotherapists. Groups of “12 steps” are organized by analogy with Alcoholics Anonymous, where people can share their experience of getting out of addiction, support each other.
Non-chemical addictions are overcome through group or individual work with a psychotherapist. Techniques of various directions of psychotherapy are used. Much attention is paid to the ability to overcome stress, to respond to feelings, forgiveness of loved ones and oneself.